For an answer to this question you need to understand how a calculator or computer "ticks" at its core. Their secret is the Boolean logic, the basis of all digital electronics and computer chips.
On the following pages you get to know the Boolean logic. With integrated circuits (IC's) you experience it by setting up digital circuits. You will quickly discover that the Boolean logic is almost ridiculously simple. Have you understood the basic principle, you can quickly build applications by skillfully combining.
To get started you need to do a few preparations.