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 An adder adds two binary numbers and forms a key element of any microprocessor. Here you find out how an adder is constructed, handles multi-digit numbers and is used optimally. » more...
 Batteries are everyday objects. They are a reliable source of electric energy to a large variety of electric circuits. Find out here the characteristics of batteries, how they perform in a circuit and what practical rules result from it. » more...
 Boolean algebra, with the logical operators "AND", "OR", etc., forms the basis of modern computers. Here you get to know the characteristics and key laws of the Boolean algebra with help of logic circuits. » more...
 The Boolean logic is the foundation of digital electronics and modern computers. Discover here the principles, how to put logic into electronic circuits and how to apply these circuits to solve specific tasks. » more...
 Capacitors can be found in a large variety of electronic circuits. They store electrical energy and can be best compared with batteries. Inside however, they work completely different. Find out here which rules they follow and how to use them. » more...
 A circuit diagram is one of the most important tools in electronics. In a circuit diagram electrical circuits are shown in a simplified graphical representation. But how do you draw a diagram? » more...
 A comparator compares two input voltages and gives you, as a result, which of the voltages is higher. It is used in controllers, in analog to digital converters and a frequency counter. Here you find out why. » more...
 A simple counter counts events, but is also capable of controlling microprocessors and automata and to reduce frequencies. Here you find the most important features of counters and their applications. » more...
 In some cases, the gain of a single transistor is not sufficient to amplify a signal. In that case, you can create a circuit of two transistors, the so-called Darlington pair. » more...
 The digital comparator compares two numbers. Without it microprocessors could not take decisions and it makes communication in a computer at all possible. Find out more here. » more...
 Diodes allow current to pass in one direction. In the other direction, they act as insulators. Diodes also have other properties. Here you get to know diodes, their characteristics and applications. » more...

## E-H

 The electroluminescence is the basis of all LEDs. On applying a voltage to a semiconductor, you observe light. Here you find out the most important characteristics of electroluminescence and where it is employed. » more...
 Flip-flops are "smart" electronic circuits. They control lifts, traffic lights and make sure computers never forget a number. Here you find out what makes them "smart", how to set up circuits and where they are used. » more...

## I-L

 Inductors generate a magnetic field. This property is used in relays, electric motors and loudspeakers. But inductors are also used in resonant circuits and frequency filters. Here you find out how and why. » more...
 Kirchhoff's laws describe the relationship between electric current and voltage in an electrical network. Get to know the rules here and understand how they help you in the comprehension of electric circuits. » more...
 Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor devices used as a light source with a number of advantages over common light sources. Therefore, they have become part of your everyday life. » more...

## M-P

 How do you measure current and voltage in a DC circuit? What should you keep in mind and how do you measure resistance? Here you find out and recognize the relationships. » more...
 A digital multiplexer selects from a number of inputs and switches it to one output. Here you find everything about digital multiplexer and its counterpart, the digital demultiplexer. » more...
 Multivibrators are frequently used in electronic circuits. You can find them in many different versions as blinkers, signal delay and in digital electronics. Find out everything worth knowing here. » more...
 In an optocoupler signals are not transmitted electrically, but optically. In this way, you can send signals between two completely electrically isolated circuits. This has many practical advantages. » more...
 The photovoltaic effect is the basis of all solar cells. With a solar cell you are able to convert sunlight into electrical energy. Here you discover some properties of the photovoltaic effect. » more...
 In many applications, you need resistance values that can be adjusted continuously. Just think of volume control, light dimmers and speed controllers. These are the areas of application of the potentiometer. » more...

## Q-T

 A light bulb or the heating wire in your toaster are basically resistors. But they can be used for more. They limit power, consume excess energy or divide voltages and current. Find out how here. » more...
 The Schmitt Trigger circuit is used in diverse applications, such as furnaces, oscillators or computers. Find out how to set up a Schmitt Trigger circuit and why it is used in so many applications. » more...
 Shift registers consist of a series of multiple flip-flops in which information is stored and passed on at each clock signal. They are used in running lights, series-to-parallel converters and microprocessors. » more...
 Thyristors are semiconductor devices. In the initial state non-conductive, they can be turned on and off by an electric current. Here you discover how thyristors are connected and where and how they are used. » more...
 Timer are very common integrated circuits and can be found in various applications, from toys to complex control systems. Here you get to know the NE555 timer. » more...
 Transistors are used as amplifiers or switches and miniaturized they are the basis of modern computers. Learn here how transistors work and where in electronics they are used. » more...
 Transistors are extremely versatile. To understand this well, you need to study three basic circuits: the common emitter, common collector and the common base circuit. Here you get to know them in detail. » more...
 When working with logic gates, you would generally use integrated circuits. But inside the integrated circuits there are basically transistor circuits at work. Find out how here. » more...
 You certainly have had this experience already: You are setting up a circuit and want to use it. However, it does not work as you expected! Now you have to troubleshoot the circuit. How? Find out here. » more...

## U-Z

 Many electronic circuits are dependent on a stable power supply. These are typical applications of voltage regulators, which are available in a wide variety as integrated circuits. Find out how and where they are used. » more...